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What is a passive optical network (PON) and How it’s work?

Time : 2022-09-20 Hits : 166

A Passive optical network (PON) technology plays vital role of delivering broadband internet through fiber cabling to the end users/customers. Generally PON networks supply unlimited internet  to the customer and fulfil huge daily needs.


In this article we are going to learn ‘’What is a passive optical network (PON) and How it’s work?

Article Map:


What is a passive optical network?

How does a passive optical network works?

Optical network operation


What is a passive optical network?  

A passive optical network, also known as a PON is widely used by providers of telecommunications networks. This type of network is responsible for bringing fiber optic cabling and signals completely or almost all the way to the end user. A passive optical network's job is to connect subscribers to the ISP to provide broadband Internet Access. It’s Depending on where the PON terminates, the system may be referred to as fiber to the curb (FTTC), fiber to the building (FTTB), or fiber to the home (FTTH).

By way of explanation we can also say ‘’’A pon is a fiber optic network that employ single point to multipoint network and there optical splitters job is to distribute data from a central hub to many user terminals’’.

A passive optical network (PON) doesn't use electrically powered hardware for transmission path. This fact distinguishes a PON from other network and make it reliable.


A PON start his journey along with OLT from broadband provider's main office.

A passive optical splitter splits single fiber and share broadband connection up to  32 optical network units (ONUs)

A passive optical network is passive because it uses optical splitters that don't need power. This is a main difference with an active optical network.

There are various types of PON (passive optical network Technology)


n APON (ATM Passive Optical Networks)

BPON (Broadband PON)

XPON (X version of Passive Optical Network)

EPON (Ethernet PON)

GPON (Gigabit Ethernet PON)

GE-PON (for Gigabit Ethernet PON)

How does a passive optical network Work?

The passive optical network begins with the optical line terminal (OLT). A core switch is linked through ethernet pluggable.  The basic job of the OLT is converting, framing and transmitting signal for passive optical Network. As well as the OLT is responsible for coordinating the optical network terminal (ONT) multiplexing for the shared upstream transmission.


An optical line terminal (OLT) is located at the central office of the communications business, and multiple optical network units (ONUs) are placed close to end customers. A single OLT may typically link up to 32 ONUs. When a signal is transmitted across a network via optical transmission, there are no requirements of power and active electronic components, which is simply describes the term of passive. On the other hand active optical network requires electrically powered switiching gear in order to transmit cells or frame through the fiber cable. 


pon working structure, what is a pon and how it is work


This graphical picture displays how commonly broadband service provider using redundant OLT hardware in the head office.
A Broadband service provider is able to distribute fiber cable up to 20km from their main office.  After distribution  fiber cable splitted through passive optical splitter to several ONU, that’s break off  optical fiber connection to the customer's using point. Through copper or ethernet cable ONU deliver network and which helps customers to easily connect their devices via LANs.  

Let’s deep dive and learn on optical network operation


Optical network operation

Wave division multiplexing (WDM) is an innovation integral to PON functioning.

Based on the wavelength of the laser light it's generally separates data streams. It's possible to send data downstream using one wavelength and send data upstream using another. These separate wavelengths can coexist on the same cable depending on the particular PON standard being used.


Time division multiple access(TDMA) is another technology also known as burst-mode transmission. It’s has been used to avoid wavelength/data collisions at the PON splitters or OLT.  It’s because multiple ONT/ONU transmitting data upstream at the same time and time division multiple access (TDMA) used to allocate the upstream bandwidth to each user for a specific time period, which is managed by the OLT.


Now you may be interested to finding some Passive optical network (PON) products  for your personal use or official use. I have some good recommendation for you:

SMARTPON PON modules will exactly meet your needs. SMARTPON is a professional manufacturer of XPON ONU with 10+ years of rich experience. The company delivers fast, stable and technology advanced ONU for the customers. Which also comes with easy management functionality.

Here are some Best & cost effectiveXPON ONU products:






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