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What is optical fiber? What is Fiber Characteristics and classification of optical fibers?

Time : 2021-11-18 Hits : 5

Optical Fibers transmit signals in the form of optical pulses. Using glass or plexiglass as the network transmission medium. It is composed of fiber core, cladding layer and protection layer. Fiber can be divided into single-mode fiber and multi-mode fiber.


Single-mode fiber providers only one optical path, which is complicated to process, but has larger communication capacity and longer transmission distance.

Multi-Mode fiber transmits the same signal through multiple optical paths, and the transmission speed is controlled by refraction of light.


Optical fibers are generally used for transmission in communication networks. During transmission, select different types of optical fibers based on the environment and transmission requirements. There are several types of optical fibers used in computer networks.

A. 8.3pm Fiber core/125pm protection layer, Single mode fiber optical cable:

B. 62.5um Fiber core/125um protection layer, Multi-mode fiber optical cable;

C. 5OPm Fiber core/125pm protection layer, Multi-mode fiber optical cable;

D. Loopm Fiber core /140pm protection layer, Multi-mode fiber optical cable;


Fiber optic cable is mainly composed of optical fiber (glass filament as thin as hair) and plastic sheath and plastic sheath.  Cable does not contain gold, silver, copper, aluminum and other metals, generally no recycling value.  Optical cable is a communication line which consists of a certain number of optical fibers in a certain way and is covered with a sheath, some of which are also 

covered with a sheath, to realize the transmission of optical signals.  Namely: by optical fiber (optical transmission carrier) through a certain process of the formation of optical cable.  The basic structure of optical cable is generally composed of cable core, reinforced steel wire, packing and sheath.  In addition, according to the need for waterproof layer, buffer layer, insulating metal wire and other components.  


The main reason for the rapid development of optical cable is that it has the following characteristics:  

1. Transmission bandwidth is very wide, communication capacity is very large;  

2.  Low transmission loss, long relay distance, especially suitable for long-distance transmission;  

3.  Strong resistance to lightning strike and electromagnetic interference;  

4. Good confidentiality, not easy to be eavesdropped or intercepted data;  

5.Small size, light weight;  

6. Low bit error rate, high transmission reliability;

7. Prices keep falling.  


The basic structure of optical cable is generally composed of cable core, reinforced steel wire, packing and sheath.  In addition, according to the need for waterproof layer, buffer layer, insulating metal wire and other 

components.  Cable by strengthening core and cable core, sheath and outer sheath composition.  There are two kinds of cable core structure: single core type and multi-core type.  There are two types of multi-core type: strip type and unit type.  The outer sheath has two kinds of metal armored and non-armored. 

The manufacturing process of optical cable is generally divided into the following processes:


1.  Optical fiber screening: select the transmission characteristics of good, qualified tension of the optical fiber.  

2. Optical fiber dyeing: the use of standard full chromatography for marking, high temperature does not fade, no migration.  

3. Secondary extrusion: use plastic with high elastic modulus and low linear expansion coefficient to extrude pipes of a certain size, put the fibers into moisture-proof and waterproof gel, and store them for a few days (not less than two days). 

4. Twisted-pair cable: the plurality of extruded optical fiber and strengthening unit stranded. 

5. Squeeze cable outer sheath: add a layer of sheath on the twisted cable.