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What is DHCP, and how does the DHCP system work?

Hora: 2022-10-13 Exitos : 17

O que é DHCP?

The whole meaning of DHCP is Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol, which is a kind of network administrator protocol that assigns Internet protocol IP dynamically to any node, network, or device to done communication through IP. The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is a protocol that allows for the rapid, automated, and centralized administration of an IP network's address assignment.

DHCP is able to automate and centrally manage these setups, so that network managers no longer need to manually assign IP addresses to all of the devices connected to the network. Small local networks, as well as large enterprise networks, are both suitable environments for implementing DHCP.

When devices are moved from one location to another, DHCP will assign new IP addresses in each location. This eliminates the need for network managers to manually assign IP addresses to devices or reassign them when devices are relocated.


Purpose of DHCP in daily life 


To avoid the mess, the same network connection in two devices or nodes can't have the same IP address. Manual configuration of IP addresses can cause problems If we introduce many connected devices in a single network. 

In other words, the DHCP server resolves this issue by automatically assigning a unique IP address to each newly connected host. In addition, it gives other DHCP options, such as the subnet mask, gateway address, and domain name server (DNS) address, to maintain the manageability of networks.

Typically, the IP address of the router is the default gateway in home networks. This IP address is commonly used to access the Internet. Home routers typically have DHCP enabled by default, which means any connected device will automatically be configured.

For this reason, your home router's DHCP server is responsible for providing this data to devices on your network. However, a LAN administrator has more authority over IP address assignment and IP Address Management with a dedicated DHCP server on an extensive network.


How does the DHCP system work? 


A DHCP server assigns distinctive IP addresses and instantly configures other network data. In most households and small companies, the router serves as the DHCP server. In extensive networks, this function may be performed by a single computer.

For this function, a device (the client) asks a router for an IP address (the host). The host then assigns an available IP address to the client to enable network communication.

A DHCPDISCOVER request is sent to the server when a device is turned on and connected to a network with a DHCP server.

When the DISCOVER packet gets to the DHCP server, the server saves an IP address that the device can use. The server then sends a DHCPOFFER packet to the client with the IP address.

The device sends a DHCPREQUEST packet to the DHCP server to accept the offer once it has been made for the desired IP address. The server then sends an ACK to confirm that the device has that particular IP address and to specify how long it has access to it before receiving a new one.

The server will send a NACK if it determines that the device cannot have the IP address.


Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol's Advantages


We've established that keeping track of IP addresses may be a hassle, especially when networks expand. IP address administration is made easier with the help of DHCP servers because:


Keeping IP addresses from colliding with one another. When IP addresses are entered manually, mistakes or duplicates may occur that are difficult to trace back to their source. Because of the dynamic nature of the IP addresses assigned by a DHCP server, users may be assured that their devices will always be able to establish a connection to the network.


Management procedures are becoming automated. The network administrator can save time by not having to memorize which devices are assigned to which IP addresses, thanks to the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol server. Also, it simplifies the process of changing IP address schemes and updating network settings for businesses.

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